By Yayi Wei
This booklet is a finished advisor to complex techniques and fabrics utilized in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). it really is an incredible textual content for these new to the sector in addition to for present practitioners who are looking to develop their realizing of this most recent expertise. The ebook can be utilized as path fabric for graduate scholars of electric engineering, fabric sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and will even be used to coach engineers enthusiastic about the manufacture of built-in circuits. It presents innovations for choosing severe fabrics (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion strategies to make sure better functionality and reduce defectivity at cheaper price. This booklet additionally comprises sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the face up to development to minimize function sizes and line-edge roughness. ultimately, it describes the hot improvement of 193i together with double publicity and double patterning. Contents - Immersion Lithography and its demanding situations- method Steps within the music- withstand Leaching and Water Uptake- touch perspective of Water on face up to Stacks- Topcoat and face up to for Immersion Lithography- Immersion Defects and illness relief innovations- Antireflection Coatings and Underlayer expertise- withstand curb and Trim tactics- Double Exposures and Double Patterning- Line-edge Roughness of face up to styles- Extendibility of 193-nm Immersion Lithography (193i+)
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Extra resources for Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM189)
12 Thermal gradient hotplate. (Reprinted by permission from Ref. ) With the TGP, a substrate can be baked across a range of temperatures, allowing multiple experiments to be run in parallel. The number of wafers required to optimize the bake temperature of a given process is significantly reduced. Exposure conditions are the same for all of the dies. The PEB is performed with the TGP; the PEB temperature sensitivity can be obtained from the single wafer. As suggested in Ref. 22, the wafer can also be rotated 90 deg for another bake.
With poor filtration, these clusters and particles can be delivered to the wafer surface. 3 Two-dispense process for resist coating. 4 Optical microscopic image of a coating defect: a comet. 2 Striations Striations are radially oriented resist stripes and are severe coating failures that show the existence of coating nonuniformity in an angular direction. Striations usually start near the center of the wafer and become broader toward the wafer edge. 5 shows an optical microscopic image of typical striations.
Photoacids are generated in resist films during exposure. Some of the photoacids can be volatilized during the PEB process and redeposit on adjacent unexposed areas, causing variations in CD. 25 Time of flight–secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) has been used to investigate the change in resist surface composition after exposure and PEB. The results indicate that some resists show significant photoacid migration from exposed to unexposed areas, but that other resists exhibit less migration.
Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM189) by Yayi Wei