By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide defense for the reason that not less than international battle II. traditionally, despite the fact that, the U.S. army has overlooked examine, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the USA began spending billions of bucks in keeping with yr on clinical countermeasures and organic detection structures. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dep. of health and wellbeing and Human providers instead of the dept of safeguard. Why has the U.S. army ignored biodefense and allowed civilian firms to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this perplexing and mostly untold tale approximately technological know-how, expertise, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have triggered either army forget and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed providers, influential principles approximately kinetic conflict have undermined security opposed to organic struggle. The impression of those rules on technology and know-how demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide safeguard coverage is pushed by means of threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the information at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense may help resolve different very important difficulties that variety from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Additional info for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
Some of these are sensational or apocalyptic while others deliberately discount the threat. That being said, the bulk of evidence can be summarized without exaggerating the threat or dismissing the danger: while no states or terrorists admit to having biological weapons today, several adversaries have demonstrated the capability and intention to acquire and use these weapons against the United States. As for the threat from states, the prime historical example is the Soviet Union, which built the largest BW program the world has ever known.
From a realist perspective, these material capabilities and hostile intentions therefore threaten military forces and civilian populations. Enemy Capabilities and Intentions The ability and intent of state and nonstate actors to wage biological warfare and bioterrorism are debated and documented in numerous government reports and historical studies. Some of these are sensational or apocalyptic while others deliberately discount the threat. That being said, the bulk of evidence can be summarized without exaggerating the threat or dismissing the danger: while no states or terrorists admit to having biological weapons today, several adversaries have demonstrated the capability and intention to acquire and use these weapons against the United States.
The socially constructed relationships that define these stereotypes have at least two troubling characteristics. First, they lack the sophistication or nuance of the shared assumptions and heuristics that define an organization’s dominant frame. At best, stereotypes are simplistic or overgeneralized; more often than not, they are crude, contradictory, and inaccurate ideas about groups. When a group is inaccurately assumed to share essential attributes, this error is compounded by the belief that ideas about one member apply to other members as well.
American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security by Frank L. Smith III