By Malachi D. Crawford
Black Muslims and the legislations: Civil Liberties From Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali examines the country of Islam’s quest for civil liberties as what may arguably be referred to as the inaugural and primary sustained problem to the suppression of non secular freedom in African American felony heritage. Borrowing insights from A. Leon Higgonbotham Jr.’s vintage works on American slavery jurisprudence, Black Muslims and the Law unearths the kingdom of Islam’s strategic efforts to have interaction governmental officers from a place of energy, and indicates the federal govt, congressmen, judges, attorneys, cops, felony directors, nation governments, and African American civic leaders held a standard knowing of what it intended to be and not to be African American and spiritual within the interval among international struggle II and the Vietnam struggle. The paintings increases easy questions on the rights of African descended humans to outline god, query white ethical authority, and critique the ethical legitimacy of yank struggle efforts in line with their very own ideals and standards.
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Extra info for Black Muslims and the Law: Civil Liberties from Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali
3; “Sedition, Draft Evasion Cases Up in Three Cities,” Chicago Defender, December 5, 1942, p. 1, col. 2; “6 Cultists Get 3-Year Sentences,” Chicago Defender, April 17, 1943, p. 3, col. 5, col. 5. 26. a3, col. 8. 27. Chicago Defender, August 8, 1942, p. 12, col. 5. 28. “Get’s 5 Years,” Chicago Defender, May 16, 1942, p. 1, col. 4. 29. Report—“Elijah Poole,” SAC Chicago to Clarence M. S. Secret Service, November 26, 1973, 6-7 (Elijah Muhammad FBI file). Chapter Three Women, Domestic Work, and Social Legitimacy in the Early NOI The manner in which the NOI was able to maintain its organizational integrity while weathering challenges to its civil liberties during its initial years is a critical issue in evaluating the NOI’s struggle to protect its civil liberties.
9. Tessa M. Gorman, “Back on the Chain Gang: Why the Eight Amendment and the History of Slavery Proscribe the Resurgence of Chain Gangs,” California Law Review 85, no. 2 (March, 1997): 448–449, 451, 477; Martha A. Meyers, “Inequality and the Punishment of Minor Offenders in the Early 20th Century,” Law and Society 27, no. 2 (1993): 322. For a more extensive look into the evolution of convict leasing and its impact on African American life and the growth of American industry following the Civil War, see Douglas A.
Fauset, Black Gods of the Metropolis: Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971), 1–13. 45. Muhammad, Message to the Blackman, 17, 18. 46. Beynon, “The Voodoo Cult,” 897. 47. Gomez, Black Crescent, 284, 296–297, 310. 48. , 1969), 40, 46–47. 49. Edward J. Blum, W. E. B. Du Bois: American Prophet (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 145. Blum’s work methodically demonstrates how political and artistic activists such as Du Bois appropriated the image of a Black Christ to question fundamental inequity in class and race relationships in American society.
Black Muslims and the Law: Civil Liberties from Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali by Malachi D. Crawford