By David N.-S. Hon
This quantity emphasizes the starting to be desire for wooden items with complicated engineering homes. It info the elemental ideas of cellulose expertise and offers present recommendations to enhancing the fundamental chemistry of lignocellulosic fabrics. The paintings: discusses the not pricey use of cellulose derivatives in a number of commodities; highlights the chemical amendment of wooden by way of tools comparable to etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers fresh growth within the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wooden; and extra.
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2014). Here we describe some of the more common methods that researchers have used to determine historical fire regimes, mostly in western North America. Aerial Photos Many researchers have used early aerial photos of montane forests to determine the historical occurrence of high-severity fire. , 2007); and (3) levels of forest canopy mortality consistent with low-, moderate-, and high-severity fire. Such studies concluded that mixed- and high-severity fire effects were generally dominant in both lower- and middle-montane forests, including mixed-conifer forests, as well as upper montane forests.
2014). , 2014; Baker, 2015; see also Chapters 2–6). , 2014). 2). , 2014). 2 Though high-severity fire patches in montane forests may initially seem to be relatively lifeless landscapes, within the first weeks and months after fire, by the first spring after fire, and for many springs thereafter, native shrubs, conifers, and deciduous trees naturally regenerate, creating an ecologically rich habitat for numerous wildlife species. (a) Star Fire of 2001, Eldorado National Forest, Sierra Nevada (photo by Chad Hanson, 2013).
Historical Northern spotted owl habitat and old-growth dry forests maintained by mixed-severity wildfires. Landsc. Ecol. 30, 655–666. , 2001. Uncertainty in surface-fire history: the case of ponderosa pine forests in the western United States. Can. J. Forest Res. 31, 1205–1226. , 2007.
Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials by David N.-S. Hon