By Morris Freedman, Larry Leach, Edith Kaplan, Gordon Winocur, Kenneth Shulman, Dean C. Delis
Written by way of a multidisciplinary group of specialists in neurobehavior, this concise, well-illustrated publication offers normative information on clock drawing from a while 20 to ninety years. a realistic advisor to the quantitative evaluation of clock drawing, it additionally takes a process-oriented method of qualitative impairment. The authors talk about clock drawing as a neuropsychological attempt tool and the reason for choosing particular time settings, in addition to the root for utilizing various clock stipulations. The ebook includes a variety of examples of clocks drawn through sufferers with cognitive impairment because of dementia, metabolic encephalopathy, disturbing mind damage, disconnection syndrome and focal mind lesions. perception into alterations in clock drawing skill which could symbolize the earliest markers of cognitive decline in dementia also are provided. This quantity should be of curiosity to clinicians and researchers in neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, geriatric drugs, language remedy, and occupational treatment.
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Additional resources for Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis
They also found significant correlations between the mean clock score in Alzheimer's disease and. measures of dementia severity. As noted by Rouleau and colleagues (1992), however, the scoring system adopted by Sunderland and colleagues assumes that the ability to draw hands on a clock is affected first and that difficulty representing numbers and the clock face occur later. This assumption is not always correct. 46 Clock Drawing Tuokko et al. (1992) compared clock drawing in patients with Alzheimer's disease to age- and gender-matched normal subjects.
This is well illustrated in Figure 3-4A in which the "one quarter" is written beside the "4" in a concrete fashion. Other examples of frontal responses seen in the more severely impaired subjects include writing "745" across the clock face without drawing any hands (Figure 3-IB), or writing "645" between the numerals "6" and "7" (Figure 3-ID). Superfluous markings are defined as any markings not necessary for the indication of contour, numbers, or time. These were common in subjects with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia and included unnecessary lines and writing letters.
As suggested by Montgomery and Costa (1983) a score of less than 123 was considered as indicating dementia. Group composition was as follows: Group 1 consisted of 18 nondemented, elderly subjects living in a senior citizen's residence. Group 2 consisted of 20 subjects with Parkinson's disease but without dementia. Group 3 consisted of 14 subjects with Parkinson's disease with dementia. Group 4 was comprised of 13 subjects with Alzheimer's disease whose DRS score fell below 123. U) -tx Table 2-4.
Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis by Morris Freedman, Larry Leach, Edith Kaplan, Gordon Winocur, Kenneth Shulman, Dean C. Delis