Prof. Dr. Jacob Sybenga (auth.)'s Cytogenetics in Plant Breeding PDF

By Prof. Dr. Jacob Sybenga (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3642840833

ISBN-13: 9783642840838

ISBN-10: 364284085X

ISBN-13: 9783642840852

An introductory dialogue of simple chromosome constitution and serve as preceeds the most textual content at the program of cytogenetic methods to the research of the manipulation of either the genetic makeup and the genetic transmission process of plant breeding fabric. research utilizing mild and electron microscopy, segregations and molecular ideas, yields details for assessing the cloth earlier than and after manipulation. a lot realization is given to quantitative tools. Manipulation not just consists of the development of particular genotypes, but in addition chromosomal transmission structures. even if research and manipulation within the somatic cycle are thought of, the point of interest is at the generative cycle, with emphasis on research and next segregation of particularly built fabric. The publication is meant for plant breeders and different scientists drawn to the research and manipulation of breeding fabric on the chromosomal point. Comparisons with molecular and mobile organic methods are made, and the potential for many of the equipment is evaluated.

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Their morphology is usually sufficiently different from that of the auto somes (or A-chromosomes) so that they can be recognized in the karyotype. This summarizes the main structural features of the chromosomes, of which the somatic and generative transmission will be considered in the following chapters. 1 Mitosis Somatic cell multiplication is realized by cell division, resulting in two equivalent daughter cells. In higher organisms cell division normally is preceded by nuclear division, almost without exception following a strict pattern: mitosis.

They become chromatids, the new daughter chromosomes, as they are called after separation during the last stages of mitosis. Occasionally, however, the condensation signal is not given and after some time a new replication signal follows. Then there is an 8C amount of DNA in the G2 nucleus. The chromatin strands do not separate and when the process is repeated several times, multistranded, polytene chromosomes are formed by endoreplication. This has been observed in a number of glandular tissues of the Diptera.

Neocentromeres may represent a remnant of an original holokinetic condition (Sybenga 1981). Special terms are used for the position of the centromere: median, submedian, subterminal, terminal; and the chromosomes where the centromeres have these positions are called metacentric, submetacentric, subacrocentric and acrocentric respectively. Telocentric is a special case in which the centromere is at the chromosome end. 3. 18 Chromosome Composition, Structure and Morphology The centromeric activity is not necessarily always confined to a strictly localized segment of the chromosomes.

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Cytogenetics in Plant Breeding by Prof. Dr. Jacob Sybenga (auth.)

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